Tips Enzymes: Effect of Temperature on Amylase Enzyme Activity

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Tips Enzymes: Effect of Temperature on Amylase Enzyme Activity
Tips Enzymes: Effect of Temperature on Amylase Enzyme Activity - Amylase is an enzyme produced by most organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans.

Amylase is used to break down starch into sugar for energy production. This enzyme optimum temperature will vary, depending on each type of organism.

Amylase enzymes generally work best at normal body temperature and activity will decrease as the temperature deviations from normal.

Here are the results of research on the effect of temperature on the amylase enzyme activity conducted in several organisms.

Pseudoalteromonas Arctica

A group of researchers isolated the enzyme amylase from Pseudoalteromonas Arctica, a local marine bacteria in the Arctic Ocean surrounding the island of Spitzbergen in Norway.

In the November 2010 issue of "Journal Protein," the researchers stated that the optimum temperature of amylase enzyme in the bacteria is 30 degrees Celsius and molecular activity was reduced by 65 percent at a temperature of zero degrees Celsius.

The study also reported that the amylase enzyme activity decreased sharply at temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius.

Heliodiaptomus viduus

Freshwater zooplankton, Heliodiaptomus viduus, contains large amounts of amylase approximately 2,400 molecules for every gram of weight.

A study published in the March 2006 edition of "The Turkish Journal of Zoology" reported that the amylase enzyme in this organism will move between the maximum temperature of 30.25 and 70.25 degrees Celsius at pH 6.0.

This study further reported that the most optimal enzymatic activity occurs at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius.

In addition, the enzyme becomes inactive at temperatures of 60.25 degrees Celsius after two hours and 70.25 degrees Celsius after one hour.

Bacillus iicheniformis

January 1989 issue of the journal "Biotechnology and Bioengineering" reported that α-amylase enzyme isolated from the bacterium, Bacillus iicheniformis, active in various temperature ranges.

The researchers adjusted the temperature of a medium containing bacteria gradually from 4 to 22 to 37 and finally 80 degrees Celsius.

They found that the enzymatic activity increases with temperature, until the enzyme denatured at 80 degrees Celsius.

Bacillus subtilis

An article published in the July 2009 issue of "Biotechnology Progress" investigate the potential use amylase enzyme isolated from Bacillus subtilis, as an indicator of pressure, temperature and time on the process of pasteurization.

The researchers found that the activity of the enzyme amylase does not experience resistance at temperatures ranging from 10 to 50 degrees Celsius, but decreased when the pressure increased and time.